The Gold Coast Chiropractor

Back Pain

1. General Back Pain

Lumbar Segmental Joint Restriction

1. Leach RA. The chiropractic Theories: A textbook of scientific research. Lippincott Williams, and Wilkins 2004:8
2. Peterson DH, Bergmann TF. Chiropractic technique: principles and practice. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002
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16. Fritz, J, Cleland, J, Childs, JD, “Subgrouping Patients With Low Back Pain: Evolution of a Classification Approach to Physical Therapy,” Journal of Orthop Sports Physical Therapy 37, no. 6 (June 2007): 290-302.
17. Walsh MJ. Evaluation of orthopedic testing of the low back for nonspecific lower back pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998 May;21(4):232-6
18. Chou R, Fu R, Carrino JA, Deyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373:463.-72
19. Anderssen GBJ. Epidemiologic features of chronic low back pain. Lancet. 1999;354:581-5.
20. Nachemson Al, Waddell G, Norland AL. Nachemson AL, Jonsson E (eds.). Epidemiology of Neck and Low Back Pain, in. Neck and Back Pain: The scientific evidence of causes, diagnoses, and treatment. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000:165-187.
21. Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, et al. (October 2007). “Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society”. Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (7): 478–91.
22. Haldeman S, Dagenais S. What we have learned about the evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain? The Spine Journal. 2008(8): 266-277
23. Roger Chou, MD; Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA; Vincenza Snow, MD; Donald Casey, MD, MPH, MBA; J. Thomas Cross Jr., MD, MPH; Paul Shekelle, MD, PhD; and Douglas K. Owens, MD, MS, for the Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Physicians/American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guidelines Panel*. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Joint Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:478-491.
24. Bigos S, Bowyer O, et al. Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Number 14, Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0642, December 1994.
25. Shekelle PG, Adams A. et al. The Appropriateness of Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain: Indications and Ratings by a Multidisciplinary Expert Panel. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1991.
26. von Heymann WJ, Schloemer P, Timm J, Muehlbauer B. Spinal high-velocity low amplitude manipulation in acute nonspecific low back pain: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial in comparison with diclofenac and placebo. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Apr 1;38(7):540-8.
27. Francesca Cecchi, Raffaello Molino-Lova , Massimiliano Chiti, Guido Pasquini, Anita Paperini, Andrea A Conti, Claudio Macchi Spinal manipulation compared with back school and with individually delivered physiotherapy for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a randomized trial with one-year follow-up. Clinical Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, No. 1, 26-36 (2010)
28. Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Bouter L. Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation and Mobilization for Lower Back Pain and Neck Pain: A Systematic Review and Best Evidence Synthesis, The Spine
Journal, 2004
29. Simon Dagenais, DC, PhDa,b,*, Ralph E. Gay, DC, MDc, Andrea C. Tricco, PhDd, Michael D. Freeman, PhD, MPH, DCe, John M. Mayer, DC, PhDf. NASS Contemporary Concepts in Spine Care: Spinal manipulation therapy for acute low back pain. The Spine Journal 10 (2010) 918–940
30. Dagenais S, Gay RE, Tricco AC, Freeman MD, Mayer JM (October 2010). “NASS Contemporary Concepts in Spine Care: spinal manipulation therapy for acute low back pain”. Spine J 10 (10): 918–40
31. Giles L, Mueller R. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Medication, Acupuncture, and Spinal Manipulation. Spine, Volume 28, Number 14, 2003, pp. 1490-1503
32. Meade TW, Dyer S, et al. “Low Back Pain of Mechanical Origin: Randomized Comparison of Chiropractic and Hospital Outpatient Treatment.” British Medical Journal, Volume 300, Number 6737, June 2, 1990, Pages 1431-1437.
33. Meade TW, Dyer S, et al. “Randomised Comparison of Chiropractic and Hospital Outpatient Management for Low-Back Pain: Results from Extended Follow Up.” British Medical Journal, Volume 311, Number 7001, August 5, 1995, Pages 349-351.
34. Koes, BW, Bouter LM, et al. “Randomised Clinical Trial of Manipulative Therapy and Physiotherapy for Persistent Back and Neck Complaints: Results of One Year Follow Up.” British Medical Journal, Volume 304, Number 6827, March 7, 1992, Pages 601-605.
35. van Tulder and Bouter et al. “Conservative Treatment of Acute and Chronic Nonspecific Low-Back Pain.” Spine, Vol. 22, Number 18, 1997, Pages 2128-2156.
36. von Heymann, Wolfgang J. Dr. med.; Schloemer, Patrick Dipl. math.; Timm, Juergen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. PhD; Muehlbauer, Bernd Prof. Dr. med. Spinal HVLA-Manipulation in Acute Non- specific LBP: A Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial in Comparison With Diclofenac and Placebo. Spine. Publish Ahead of Print, POST ACCEPTANCE, 28 September 2012
37. Bishop et al. The chiropractic hospital-based interventions research outcomes study: a random- ized controlled trial on the effectiveness of clinical practice guidelines in the medical and chiropractic management of patients with acute mechanical low back pain. The Spine Journal 2010(10):1055-1064
38. Wilkey, et al. A Comparison Between Chiropractic Management and Pain Clinic Management for Chronic Low Back Pain in a National Health Service Outpatient Clinic. Journal of Alternative & Complimentary Therapies: Volume 14, Number 5, 2008, pp.465-473.
39. Gregory F. Parkin-Smith, MTech(Chiro), MSc, DrHC, Ian J. Norman, BSc, MSc, PhD, Emma Briggs, BSc, PhD, RN, Elizabeth Angier, BSc, MSc(Chiro), Timothy G. Wood, BSc, MTech(Chiro), James W. Brantingham, DC, PhD A Structured Protocol of Evidence-Based Conservative Care Compared With Usual Care for Acute Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 93, January 2012
40. O. Aure, Nilsen, Vasseljen. Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with chronic Low Back Pain. Spine, Vol 28, Number 6, 2003, pp. 525-532.
41. Flynn T, Fritz J, Whitman J, et al. A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with spinal manipulation. Spine. 2002;27(24):2835-2843.
42. Paskowski I, Schneider M, Stevans J, Ventura JM, Justice BD, A Hospital-based Standardized Spine Care Pathway: Report Of A Multidisciplinary, Evidence-based Process. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2011;34:98-106.
43. Milne S, Welch V, Brosseau L, Saginur M, Shea B, Tugwell P, Wells G. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(2):CD003008.
44. Long A, Donelson R, Fung T. Does it matter which exercise? A randomized control trial of exercise for low back pain. Spine. Dec 1 2004;29(23):2593-602.
45. Hides J, Stanton W, McMahon S, Sims K, Richardson C. Effect of stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite-cricketers with low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008;38:101-108
46. Tilbrook HE, Cox H, Hewitt CE, et al. Yoga for chronic low back pain: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. Nov 1 2011;155(9):569-78.
47. Haas M, Vavrek D, Peterson D, Polissar N, Neradilek M. Dose=response and efficacy of spinal manipulation for care of chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. The Spine Journal (2013)
48. Menz HB1, Dufour AB, Riskowski JL, Hillstrom HJ, Hannan MT. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Dec;52(12):2275-82. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ket298. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

2. Back Pain on both sides

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

1. Sturesson B, Selvik G, Uden A. Movements of the sacroiliac joints: A roentgnen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Spine. 1989;14:162–165.
2. Sturesson B, Uden A, Vleeming A. A radiostereometric analysis of the movements of the sacroiliac joints in the reciprocal straddle position. Spine. 2000;25:214–217.
3. Maigne JY, Aivaliklis A, Pfefer F. Results of sacroiliac joint double block and value of sacroiliac pain provocation tests in 54 patients with low back pain. Spine 1996;21: 1889–1892.
4. Bernard TN Jr, Kirkaldy-Willis WH. Recognizing specific characteristics of nonspecific low back pain. Clin Orthop Relat Res. Apr 1987;217:266-80.
5. Fortin JD, Washington WJ, Falco FJE. Three pathways between the sacro-iliac joint and neural structures. AJNR. 1999;20:1429–1434.
6. Laslett M. Evidence-Based Diagnosis and Treatment of the Painful Sacroiliac Joint J Man Manip Ther. 2008; 16(3): 142–152
7. Laslett M, McDonald B, Tropp H, Aprill CN, Oberg B. Agreement between diagnoses reached by clinical examination and available reference standards: A prospective study of 216 patients with lumbopelvic pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2005;6:28.
8. Poley RE, Borchers JR. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: evaluation and treatment. Phys Sportsmed. 2008 Dec;36(1):42-9.
9. Michael J. Tuite Sacroiliac Joint Imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2008; 12(1): 072-082
10. Foley BS, Buschbacher RM. Sacroiliac joint pain: Anatomy, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85:997–1006.
11. Stuge B, Laerum E, Kirkesola G, Vollestad N: The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilizing exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Spine 2004, 29:351-359.
12. L. H. Visser, N. P. Woudenberg, J. de Bont, F. van Eijs, K. Verwer, H. Jenniskens, and B. L. Den Oudsten Treatment of the sacroiliac joint in patients with leg pain: a randomized-controlled trial European Spine JournalOctober 2013, Volume 22, Issue 10, pp 2310-2317
13. Vleeming A et al. The function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament: its implication for understanding low back pain. Spine 1996 Mar 1;21(5):556-62.

3. Back and leg pain

Lumbar Spondylosis

1. Schneck CD. The anatomy of lumbar spondylosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1985;193:20–36.
2. Gibson JNA, Waddell G. Surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Spine. 2005;20:2312–20
3. Middleton K, and Fish DE. Lumbar spondylosis: clinical presentation and treatment approaches Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2009 June; 2(2): 94–104.
4. Eubanks JD, Lee MJ, Cassinelli E, Ahn NU. Prevalence of lumbar facet arthrosis and its relationship to age, sex, and race: an anatomic study of cadaveric specimens. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 Sep 1;32(19):2058-62.
5. Kraan PM, Berg WB. Osteophytes: relevance and biology. Osteoarthritis cartilage. 2007;15(3):237–44. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2006.11.006.
6. Rothschild B. Lumbar spondylosis. In: Emedicine publication. 2008. Available via WebMD.
7. Kirkaldy-Willis W, Bernard T. Managing low back pain. New York: Churchill livingstone; 1983.
8. Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Wedge JH, Yong-Hing K, et al. Pathology and pathogenesis of lumbar spondylosis and stenosis. Spine. 1978;3:319–28.
9. Lawrence JS. Disc degeneration. Its frequency and relationship to symptoms. Ann Rheum Dis. 1969;28:121–38.
10. Symmons DPM, Hemert AM, Vandenbrouke JP, et al. A longitudinal study of back pain and radiological changes in the lumbar spines of middle aged women: radiographic findings. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991;50:162–6.
11. Miller JA, Schmatz C, Schultz AB. Lumbar disc degeneration: correlation with age, sex, and spine level in 600 autopsy specimens. Spine. 1988;13:173–8.
12. Spector TD, MacGregor AJ. Risk factors for osteoarthritis: genetics. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2004;12(Suppl A):S39–44
13. Battie MC, Videman T, Gibbons LE, Fisher LD, Manninen H, Gill K. 1995 Volvo Award in clinical sciences: determinants of lumbar disc degeneration—a study relating lifetime exposures and magnetic resonance imaging findings in identical twins. Spine 1995; 20: 2601–2612.
14. O’Neill TW, McCloskey EV, Kanis JA, et al. The distribution, determinants, and clinical correlates of vertebral osteophytosis: a population based survey. J Rheumatol. 1999;26:842–8.
15. Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(2):69–73.
16. Nathan H. Osteophytes of the vertebral column: an anatomical study of their development according to age, race, and sex with consideration as to their etiology and significance. J Bone Joint Surg 1962; 44: 243–268.
17. Modic, MT, Ross JS. Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease. RSNA Radiology October 2007, Volume 245, Issue 1
18. Stern SD, Cifu AS, Altkorn D. From Symptom to Diagnosis, McGraw Hill NY. 2006
20. Carragee EJ. Persistent Low Back Pain. NEJM 2005 352:18, 1891-8
22. Tulder MW, Koes B, Malmivaara Outcome of non-invasive treatment modalities on back pain: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J. 2006;15(1):S64–81.
23. Bromfort G, Haas M, Evans RL, et al. Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Spine. 2004;4(3):335–56.
24. Bertelsman TJ, Indications and Contraindications to Spinal Manipulation: A review of the Literature. Presentation, American Back Society Meetings, San Francisco, CA December, 1995
25. Hayden JA, Tulder MW, Malmivaara AV, et al. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:765–75.
26. Mitchell RI, Carmen GM: Results of a multicenter trial using an intensive active exercise program for the treatment of acute soft tissue and back injuries. Spine, 1990;15:514-521
27. Standaert CJ, Weinstein WM, Rumpeltes J, Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with lumbar stabilization exercises The Spine Journal 8 (2008) 114–120
28. McGill SM, Karpowicz Amy. Exercises for Spine Stabilization: Motion/Motor Patterns, Stability Progressions, and Clinical Technique Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 90, January 2009
29. Butler DS. The sensitive nervous system. Adelaide (Australia)7 Noigroup Publications; 2000
31. Hickey RF. Chronic low back pain: a comparison of diflunisal with paracetamol. N Z Med J. 1982;95(707):312–4.
32. Salzmann E, Pforringer W, Paal G, et al. Treatment of chronic low-back syndrome with tetrazepam in a placebo controlled double-blind trial. J Drug Dev. 1992;4:219–28.
34. Roos EM, Herzog W, Block JA, et al. Muscle weakness, afferent sensory dysfunction and exercise in knee osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7:57–63.
35. Pickar JG. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation. Spine J. 2002;2:357–71.
36. Srbely J. Spinal manipulative therapy and its role in the prevention, treatment and management of chronic pain J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2012 March; 56(1): 5–7.
37. Videman T, Battié MC, Gibbons LE, Gill K. Aging changes in lumbar discs and vertebrae and their interaction: a 15-year follow-up study. Spine J. 2014 Mar 1;14(3):469-78.
38. Vieira-Pellenz F, Oliva-Pascual-Vaca A, Rodriguez-Blanco C, Heredia-Rizo AM, Ricard F, Almazán-Campos G. Short-Term Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Pain Perception, Spinal Mobility, and Full Height Recovery in Male Subjects with Degenerative Disc Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May 23.

4. Acute disc pain

Lumbar Disc Lesion

1. Byrne TN, Benzel E, Waxman SG. Diseases of the Spine and Spinal Cord. Oxford University Press, 2000, p126.
2. Saal JA: Natural history and nonoperative treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Spine 21 (Suppl 24):2S-9S, 1996
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6. Frymoyer JW. Back pain and sciatica. N Engl J Med 1988;318: 291-300.
7. Boden SC, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects: A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990; 72: 403-408
8. Nachemson A, Elfstrom G. Intravital dynamic pressure measurements in lumbar discs. A study of common movements, maneuvers and exercises. Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl 1970;1:1–40
9. Deville W, van der Windt D, et al. The Test of Lase`gue: Systematic Review of the Accuracy in Diagnosing Herniated Discs. SPINE Volume 25, Number 9, pp 1140 –1147, 2000.
10. Bell GR, Ross JS. Diagnosis of nerve root compression. Myelography, computed tomography, and MRI. Orthop Clin North Am. 1992;23:405–19
11. Saal JA, Saal JS: Nonoperative treatment of
herniated lumbar intervertebral disc with radiculopathy an outcome study. Spine 1989; 14:431-436
12. Pradeep Suri, MD, David J. Hunter, MBBS, PhD, Cristin Jouve, MD, Carol Hartigan, MD, Janet Limke,MD, Enrique Pena, MD, Ling Li, MPH, Jennifer Luz, BA, James Rainville,MD. Nonsurgical Treatment of Lumbar Disk Herniation Are Outcomes Different in Older Adults? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(3):423-429
13. McKenzie RA, May S. The lumbar spine: mechanical diagnosis and therapy. 2nd ed. Waikenae, NZ: Spinal Publications;2003
14. Gudavalli MR, Cox JM, Cramer GD, Baker JA, Patwardhan AG. Intervertebral disc pressure changes during low back treatment procedures. BED Advances in Bioengineering; 1998. p. 39
15. Oliphant D. Safety of Spinal Manipulation in the Treatment of Lumbar Disk Herniations: A Systematic Review and Risk Assessment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2004 (Mar); 27 (3): 197–210
16. Snelling NJ, Spinal manipulation in patients with disc herniation: A critical review of risk and benefit. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine
Volume 9, Issue 3 , Pages 77-84, September 2006
17. McMorland G, Suter E, Casha S, du Plessis SJ, Hurlbert RJ.
Manipulation or microdiskectomy for sciatica? A prospective randomized clinical study . J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010 Oct;33(8):576-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.08.013
18. Butler DS. The sensitive nervous system. Adelaide, Australia: Noigroup Publications; 2000
19. Zeliha Unlu, Saliha Tasc, Serdar Tar han, Yuksel Pabuscu, and Serap Islak, Comparison Of 3 Physical Therapy Modalities For Acute Pain In Lumbar Disc Herniation Measured By Clinical Evaluation And Magnetic Resonance Imaging. JMPT Volume 31(3) 2008 191-98
20. Sheffield, F. “Adaptation of Tilt Table for Lumbar Traction.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil 45 (Sep. 1964): 469-472
21. van Duijvenbode ICD, et al. “Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain (Review).” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2.
22. Andersson GB, Svensson HO, Oden A: The intensity of work recovery in low back pain. Spine 8:880-884, 1983